Managing Food Safety
The consequences of unsafe food can be serious. The implementation of a food safety management system enables an organization to identify and control food safety hazards. As many of today's food products repeatedly cross national boundaries, International Standards are needed to ensure the safety of the global food supply chain.
Food safety has become a worldwide concern. It is now generally accepted by legislation, enforcement officers and food professionals that a formal, structured food safety management system is the most effective way of managing and controlling food safety hazards in the preparation and handling of food and food related products. In this context the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) has developed a number of standards. These are referred to as the ISO 22000 family.
The ISO 22000 family
The ISO 22000 family contains a number of standards, each focusing on different aspects of food safety managment. These include:
ISO 22000:2005 contians the overall guidelines for food safety managment
ISO/TS 22004:2005 contians guidelines for applying ISO 22000
ISO 22005:2007 focuses on traceability in the feed and the food chain
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 contains specific prerequisites for food manufacturing
ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 contains specific prerequisites for farming
ISO 22000:2005 specifies requirements for a food safety managment system whre an organization in the food chain needs to demosntrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safeat the time of human consumption.
It is applicable to all organisations , regardless of size, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain and want to implement systems that consistently provide safe products. The means of meeting any requirements of ISO 22000:2005 can be accomplished through the use of internal and/or external resources.
ISO 22000:2005 specifies requirements to enable an organisation:
to plan, implement, operate, maintian and update a food safety managment system aimed at providing products that , according to their intended use, are safe for the consumer,
to demonstrate compliance with applicable statutory and regulatory food safety requirements
to evaluate and assess customer requirements and demonstrate conformity wiht those mutually agreed customer requirements that relate to food safety, in order to enhace customer satisfaction,
to effectively communicate food safety issues to their suppliers, customers and relevant interested parties in the food chain,
to ensure that the organization conforms to its stated food safety policy,
to demonstrate such conformity to relevant interested parties, and
to seek certification or registration of its food safety management system by an external organization, or make a self-assessment or self-declaration of conformity to ISO 22000:2005.
ISO/TS 22004:2005 provides generic guidance that can be applied in the use of ISO 22000.
ISO 22005:2007 gives the principles and specifies the basic requirements for the design and implementation of a feed and food traceability system. It can be applied by an organization operating at any step in the feed and food chain.
It is intended to be flexible enough to allow feed organizations and food organizations to achieve identified objectives.
The traceability system is a technical tool to assist an organization to conform with its defined objectives, and is applicable when necessary to determine history or location of a product otr its relevant components.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 specifies requirements for establishing , implementing and maintaining prerequisites programs (PRP) to assist in controlling food safety hazards.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 is applicable to all organizations, regardless of size or complexity, which are involved in the manufacturing step of the food chain and wish to implement PRP in such a way as to address the requirements specified in ISO 22000:2005, Clause 7.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 is neither designed or intended for use in other parts of the food supply chain.
Food manufacturing operations are diverse in nature and not all of the requirements spcified in ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 apply to an individual establishment or process.
Where exclusions are made or altenative measures implemented, these need to be justified and documented by a hazard analysis, as described in SIO 22000:2005, 7.4. Any exclusions or alternative measures adopted should not affect the ability of the organization to comply with these requirements. Examples of such exclusions include, the additional aspects relevant to manufacturing operations listed under 1), 2), 3), 40 and 5) below.
ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 specifies detailed requirements to be specifically considered in relation to ISO 22000:2005, Clause 7.2.3:
a) construction and layout of buildings and associated utilities;
b) layout of premises, including workspace and employee facilities;
c) supplies of air, water, energy and other utilities;
d) supporting services, including waste and sewage disposal;
e) suitability of equipment and its accessibility for cleaning, maintenance and preventive maintenance;
f) management of purchased materials;
g)measures for the prevention of cross-contamination;
h) cleaning and sanitizing;
i) pest control;
j) persanl hygiene.
In addtion, ISO/TS 22002-1:2009 adds other aspects which are considered relevant to manufacturing operations:
2) product recall procedures;
4) product information and cosnumer awareness;
5) food defence, biovigilance and bioterroism.
ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 specifies requirements and guidelines for the design, implementation, and documentation of prerequisite programmes (PRPs) that maintain a hygienic environment and assist in controlling food safety hazards in the food chain.
ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 is applicable to all organizations (including individuals farms or group of farms), regardless of size or complexity, which are involved in farming steps of the food chain and wish to implement PRPs in accordance with ISO 22000:2005, 7.2. If an organization is using ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 as a reference for the purpose of making a self-declaration of conformity with or seeking certification to ISO 22000:2005, deviations therefrom (i.e where exclusions are made or alternative measures are implemented) need to be justified and documented . It is exepected that such devistions will not affect the ability of the organization to comply with the requirements of ISO 22000.
ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 is applicable to the farming of crops (e.g. cereals, fruits, vegetables), living farm animals (e.g. cattle, poultry, fish, pigs) and the handling of their products (e.g. milk, eggs). It is not applicable to activities such as picking of wild fruits, vegetables and mushrooms, fishing, hunting, which are not considered as organized farming activities.
All operations related to farming are included in the scope (e.g. sorting, cleaning, packing of unprocessed products, on-farm feed manufacturing, transport within the farm). However, ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 is not applicable to processing activities carried out on farm premises (e.g. heating, smoking, curing, maturing, fermenting, drying, marinating, extraction, extrusion or a combination of those processes). Niether is ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 applicable to products or animals that are being transported to or from the farm.
Farming operations are diverse in nature according to size, type of products, production methods, geographical and biological environment, related statutory and regulatory requirements etc. Therefore, the need, intensity and nature of PRPs will differ between organizations. Established PRPs can also change as a result of the review procedures stated in ISO 22000:2005, 8.2. ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 focuses on the requirements for the management of PRPS, while the design of the exact PRPs is left to the user. The managment of the PRPs includes assessment of the need, selection of measures that meet the identified needs and required records. The specific examples of PRPs listed in ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 are intended for guidance only, and are aimed for application with due regard to the overall objective of producing food which is safe and suitable for consumption.
It is possible for ISO/TS 22002-3:2011 to be be applied by other organizations willing to develop codes of practice and other types of supplier-buyer relationship based on ISO 22000.
ISO/TS 22003:2007 defines the rules applicalbe for the audit and certification of a food safety management system (FSMS) complying with the requirements given in ISO 22000:2005 (or other sets of specified FSMS requirements), and provides the necessary information and confidence to customers about the way certification of thier suppliers has been granted.
FSMS certificatiion does not attest to the safety or fitness of the products of the products of an organzations within the food chain. However, ISO 22000:2005 requires an organization to meet all applicable food-safety-related statutory and regulatory requirements through its management system.
National Food Safety Management Certification Scheme
The Mauritius Standards Bureau has developed the National Food Safety Management System Certification Scheme (NFSMSCS) in order to ensure the full involvement of food businesses in the development and implementation of their food management system (FSMS). Its main obejective is to give recognition to companies that have properly designed, planned, established, maintained and implemented food safety managment system (FSMS) meeting the requirements of either MS ISO 22000 or MS 133.
The scheme is for food industries to demonstrate and provide evidence of their ability to identify and control food safety hazards and the essential conditions pertaining to food safety.
The applicable Standards
MS ISO 22000:2005 - Food Safety Management System - Requirements for any Organization in the Food chain.
MS 133:2010 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system
Both standards are on sale at the Mauritius Standards Bureau
MS ISO 22000
MS ISO 22000 Food safety management system incorporates genrally accepted management ssytem requirements with the 7 principles of the HACCP system.
Objectives of MS ISO 22000
The MS ISO 22000 requirements enable an organisation to:
plan, design, implement, operate, maintain and update a food safety managment system
evaluate, assess and demonstrate conformity to customer requirements
demonstrate effective communication
demonstrate conformity with regulatory requirements
Scope of MS ISO 22000
Requirements for an organisation to:
demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to consistently provide safe end products that both meet agreed customer and applicable regulatory food safety requirements.
enhance customer satisfaction through the effective control of food safety hazards, including processes for updating the system.
Key elements of MS ISO 22000
It provides Food safety form 'farm to plate' by combining key elements of:
Benefits of MS ISO 22000
Greater confidence in the organization's products as regards to food safety.
Enhanced customer satisfaction.
Less customer complaints.
Enhanced image of the organisation.
Can be used as a marketing tool
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Contact the Unit: Mr A Ramsamy